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These two chapters of the monograph, written by the 9th Reconnaissance Wing's historian, provide an overview and assessment of U-2 operations in Desert Storm. Prior to the full establishment of the Defense HUMINT Service in 1995, each of the military services conducted human intelligence collection efforts in support of their departments. This portion of the 1991 fiscal year history for the Army's chief intelligence officer, summarizes some of the contributions of Army overt HUMINT operations, including those related to Desert Storm.Document 12: Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Annual Historical Review, 1 October 1990 to 30 September 1991, 1993. For years the most significant military service HUMINT effort, including both clandestine and overt HUMINT, was conducted by the U. According to the history, the collection of information from Iraqi émigrés and defectors provided valuable information with regard to the targeting of Iraqi military facilities as well as avoidance of the inadvertent targeting of certain non-military facilities. S.-led coalition, along with the minimal casualties suffered, in the Persian Gulf war caught the attention of the military leadership of a number of countries.This 1970s study provides basic data on various aspects of the Scud B--including, among others, its range, payload, warhead type, and accuracy. Document 2: George Bush, National Security Directive 45, U. Policy in Response to the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, August 20, 1990. This NSD was the first of two key Presidential directives that guided U. policy and actions in response to Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait. It was reported that the Iraqi test firing allowed the U. to fine-tune its launch detection system, which proved of great value during Desert Storm. The directive notes that while the economic sanctions imposed on Iraq "have had measurable impact upon Iraq's economy but have not accomplished the intended objective of ending Iraq's occupation of Kuwait. This memoir, written by the Army's chief intelligence officer in the Persian Gulf theater of war, provides an overview of a number of aspects of Army and military intelligence activity during the Persian Gulf war.
Lessons learned included the need for the Army "to develop an imagery architecture to provide near-real time photography to commanders from Corps through Brigade" as well as to emphasize the requirement for a "wide area, high resolution imagery capability." Document 6: United States Central Command, Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, 11 July 1991. Thus, Part I examines pre-conflict events, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the creation of the allied coalition, Desert Shield, and Desert Storm.
S.-British led air campaign prior to the commencement of the ground campaign.
That air campaign marked the first major use of the F-117A, "Nighthawk," stealth fighter, the existence of which was declassified in 1988 shortly before its first combat in Operation JUST CAUSE in Panama in 1989.
Document 7: Air Force Space Command, Desert Storm "Hot Wash" 12-, July 1991. This 9-page assessment examines space operations during Desert Storm with respect to nine different areas, including weather support, satellite communications (SATCOM), navigation, use of multi-spectral imagery, tactical ballistic missile warning, and satellite repositioning.
Each page focuses on one area, and includes observations, discussion, lessons learned, and recommended actions.