Humans have always had to deal with natural hazards; whether through preparing for them or responding when a disaster occurs.
One of the most important ways humans respond to natural hazards is by preparing for their occurrence.
As technology has improved, so has the ability to prepare, predict, and forecast future natural disasters.
The Cost of Being Under the Weather: Droughts, Floods, and Health Care Costs in Sri Lanka. The Unfortunate Regressivity of Public Disaster Insurance: A Quantitative Analysis of a New Zealand Case. Measuring the Economic and Fiscal Burdens of Disasters in the Pacific. Sri Lankan Households a Decade after the Indian Ocean Tsunami. What determines Public Spending in a Low-Income Country? The 1960 Tsunami in Hawaii: Long Term Consequences of a Coastal Disaster.
Building should also be flexible and resistant to horizontal and vertical tensions.
However, the recent earthquakes in Kobe and Los Angeles have shown that full protection from earthquakes does not exist.
International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics (2011). The Aftermath of Natural Disasters: Beyond Destruction.
A Hurricane Hits Hawaii: A Tale of Vulnerability to Natural Disasters.
Introduction The term "earthquake" or seismic tremor is a good description of the natural phenomenon which suddenly strikes an area causing damage that varies according to the intensity of the quake and local geological conditions.
Close to the epicentre of the quake, the damage is direct, resulting in immediate destruction, such as collapsed buildings and other infrastructure, and indirect or secondary, resulting, for example, in fires, landslides, ruptured water and gas mains, interruption of electricity supplies, floods, etc..