These two studies use a current labor displacement rate of 25 percent.The costs of displacement, principally public assistance costs, are based on increasing displacement rates and are projected into the future.Citizen children of undocumented immigrants are children under age 18 who were born in the United States and whose mothers are undocumented persons.
These two studies use a current labor displacement rate of 25 percent.The costs of displacement, principally public assistance costs, are based on increasing displacement rates and are projected into the future.Citizen children of undocumented immigrants are children under age 18 who were born in the United States and whose mothers are undocumented persons.Tags: Four Decades Of Polish EssaysCritical Thinking SeminarsPatrick Kavanagh EssayEssay On Unsung HeroesCanadian Competition Environment Essay ScholarshipEssay On Belief SystemsRoman Essay QuestionsRecommendation Sample For Research PaperTaks Essay Score 4
It is not clear if federal taxes were included in the revenues paid by the immigrant groups. Cost estimates were based on a variety of state and county data; taxes paid were based on data cited from the 1992 , but without table or page references, making it difficult to replicate his estimates.
Census Bureau data were used to calculate public assistance participation rates.
Primary and secondary education costs were based on a 1990 estimate of participation rates from the Center for Immigration Studies.
Fiscal 1991 data are used for total national program costs, inflated to 1992 dollars.
One workshop participant suggested that average per pupil expenditures may underestimate per pupil costs by excluding the cost of bilingual and English-as-a-second-language education.
Finally, this study does not include an identifiable cost for capital improvements, and capital costs may not have been included in calculations for those improvements: such costs may be important because very high levels of illegal immigration may result in a need for school districts to construct new schools, for example.The Los Angeles County Internal Services Department (1992) prepared a study for the County Board of Supervisors assessing the fiscal impact of immigration on Los Angeles County and for school districts within the county. Cost estimates for fiscal 1991–1992 covered criminal justice programs and services, health and mental health services, social services, and elementary and secondary education.The study estimated costs and revenues for four groups: recent legal immigrants, amnesty immigrants, undocumented immigrants, and citizen children of undocumented immigrants. Cost data were based on administrative records and case records from county departments and a survey of the amnesty population by the California State Health Services Department and Mental Health Department.Finally, even if the studies had accurately measured the level of job displacement in Houston in the 1980s, the phenomenon of job displacement is so locally sensitive that the studies' results for Texas cannot be generalized to the nation (see U. General Accounting Office, 1995, for a complete discussion).Although the Huddle studies did attempt to be comprehensive, to measure net costs, and to estimate prospective public sector costs of legal and illegal immigration, workshop participants noted several problems.Huddle used an average cost approach extrapolated from national program costs per capita, adjusted for the participation rate of each group of immigrants—legal, amnesty, and illegal.For example, for public assistance costs, he calculated the following: national cost per participant = program cost per participant national participation rate = number of participants/national population immigration participation rate = national participation rate multiplied by (immigrant poverty rate/native-born poverty rate) number of immigrant participants = immigrant participation rate multiplied by total immigrant population total cost = number of immigrant participants multiplied by program cost per participant Taxes paid are estimated similarly, using Los Angeles County revenue data (for both the national and Texas studies) for each tax divided by the total immigrant population with adjustment factors to obtain national estimates.Huddle estimates costs for 22 programs (14 programs for illegal immigrants) but concentrated his analysis on the three broad categories of public assistance, criminal justice, and education.Revenue estimates included federal income and excise taxes; state income, sales, and excise taxes; the state lottery (for Texas); and county sales and property taxes.The assumption that the behavior of undocumented immigrants is the same as legal U. residents, regarding program use and costs, is questionable.Moreover, in a large geographic area like Los Angeles County, the uneven distribution of the undocumented immigrant population, coupled with geographical variations in cost and spending, casts doubt on cost estimates, particularly those for education.