It focuses on a of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).
Items from other grades were included to provide an indication of the rich sources of information on parent and community involvement programs, and to illustrate the need for further research in the middle grades.
Focus on the roles of parents, families, and community members as facilitated in the areas of home learning, school restructuring, or districtwide programs.
These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006).
Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review.
To provide clarity, we define the three areas as: Districtwide programs.
The emphasis of comprehensive district programs is on the variety of roles for parents and community members, particularly in schools with many educationally at-risk students.
It is often difficult to separate those aspects pertaining to the middle grades from studies that include the early elementary grades (K-3) and/or secondary school grades (9-12). In our review of research and practices in the schools, we found considerable overlap among these topics.
When appropriate, we have indicated where issues under one topic are related to the other two.
Such comprehensive programs might use innovative methods of communicating with parents on various educational and child development issues; on recruiting community members as volunteers in new, meaningful ways; and on developing other ways to make the programs attractive to different kinds of parents and community members.
Collaboration with businesses and community service agencies such as flextime for school conferences or other school-related activities may also be considered. At the building level, schools may change their practices and structure in significant ways to encourage more parent involvement with emphasis on school initiated activities to promote contacts with all parents. Parents can extend their children's school learning through home activities such as reading; assisting with homework; encouraging family games, activities, and discussions; and improving their own parenting skills.