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When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al.(an abbreviation of the Latin for 'and the others') although for works with just two authors both names may be given, as in the example above.This allows the writer to fully acknowledge her/his sources, without significantly interrupting the flow of the writing.
The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.
If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below. comm.' stands for personal communication; no further information is usually required.
This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.
This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. 44) believe that the willingness of adults to learn is affected by their attitudes, values and self-image and that their capacity to learn depends greatly on their study skills.
Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text (in this instance a book) and so a page number has been added.
This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing.
It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.
The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.
The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas.